Socialism in one country

Marxist Dictionary

A political doctrine and practice born as a banner of counter-revolution in Russia asserting that a world revolution was not necessary to “build” socialism and that the Russian state itself -whose soviets had already been emptied and the country renamed “socialist motherland”-, was the main conquest of the universal proletariat.

Consequently, the international relations of Russian state capitalism were to take precedence over the development of the world revolution; and the International and its various national parties were to subordinate themselves unconditionally to the defense of the “socialist fatherland”.

In practice its adoption affirmed the interests of the Russian bureaucracy over the world revolution. By imposing themselves on the national parties since the Komintern, they paved the way for increasingly bloody defeats of the proletariat (Britain in 1926, surrender of the Chinese revolution to the Kuomintang in 1926-27, Hitler’s rise to power in Germany…) until they became the direct organizers of the counter-revolution and the massacre of the workers in 1936-37 in Spain, opening the way to a new imperialist world war in which, after two years of alliance with Germany, they would call for an alliance with the allied imperialist powers.


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