Kongsi: The large mining collectivities of Borneo

8 November, 2021 · News

Kongsi in Soengeiliat ca. 1900 - ca. . 1920
Kongsi in Soengeiliat ca. 1900 - ca. . 1920

The kongsi were collectively owned Chinese proto-states in Borneo in the 18th and 19th centuries. These territorial collectivities are sold today in Asia as the first bourgeois republics in history, before the American and French revolutions, but in reality they were something much more interesting.